Astronomy 113, Session 003,†† Spring 2006

Instructor:Jie Zhang

 

Final Exam:7:30 Ė 10:15 PM, Wednesday, May 10

 

Final Exam Review Topics

 

Note:†† 1. Final exam consists of 100 multiple choice questions

††††††††††† 2. Review list is ordered by chapters and sections.

††††††††††† 2. Sections indicated by Ď-----Ď may be skipped when preparing for the final.

††††††††††† 3. There are about 1 to 2 questions for each section listed below. The more items in the section, the more questions.

 

       Chap. 18 ---  Our Star, The Sun

1.     Energy of the Sun, thermonuclear reaction, hydrogen fusion into helium

2.     Sunís internal structure, three layers: core, radiative zone and convection zone

3.     ------

4.     ------

5.     Sunís atmosphere, three layers: photosphere, chromosphere, corona; photosphere, granules

6.     Chromosphere

7.     Corona; extremely high temperature and low density; solar wind

8.     sunspot; sunspot cycle or solar cycle

9.     sunspot: region of strong magnetic field; zeeman effect; magnetogram

10.  ------

 

 

       Chap. 19 --- the Nature of the Stars

1.     Stellar parallax; pc; ly; distance to stars

2.     Luminosity; relation between distance, (apparent) brightness and luminosity;inverse-square law

3.     Apparent magnitude; absolute magnitude; magnitude scale

4.     Starís surface temperature and color

5.     Stellar spectrum; Spectral classes: O, B, A, F, G, K, M;

6.     Relation between luminosity, surface temperature and radius

7.     Hertzsbrung-Russell (H-R) diagram

ß       Main sequence stars

ß       Red giant stars

ß       Supergiant stars

ß       White dwarf stars

8.     -------

9.     Mass of stars; Keplerís law for binary star systems; Mass-luminosity relation

10.  -------

11.  -------

 

 

 

       Chap. 20 --- The Birth of Stars

1.     Introduction to stellar evolution

2.     Interstellar medium: gas and dust

       Nebulae

       Dark nebulae

       Emission nebulae; H II region

       Interstellar extinction

3.     Protostar

4.     Pre-main-sequence evolution; dependence on mass

5.     ------

6.     Young star clusters with H II regions

7.     Giant molecular clouds; star birth

 

       Chap. 21 --- Stellar Evolution: After the Main Sequence

1.     Main sequence starsí life time

       zero-age main sequence stars

       life time dependence on stellar mass

       Red giants

       Core hydrogen burning out

       Shell hydrogen fusion; shell expansion

2.     Helium fusion at the core

       degenerate-electron pressue

       helium flash

       Evolution of the Sun

3.     Evolution of star cluster in H-R diagram; turn-off point and age

4.     Population I stars and Population II stars

5.     Pulsating stars; Cepheid variables; Period-luminosity Relation

6.     Mass transfer in binary star systems; Roche lobe

 

       Chap. 22  ---  Stellar Evolution: The Deaths of Stars

1.     Post-main-sequence evolution

a.      Red giant branch: shell hydrogen fusion

b.     Horizontal-branch: core helium fusion, shell hydrogen fusion

c.      Asymptotic giant branch (AGB stars): shell helium fusion, shell hydrogen fusion

2.     Carbon stars; convection in AGB stars

3.     Planetary nebula; run-away shells of AGB stars

4.     White dwarf stars: burn-out core; Chandrasekhar limit

5.     High-mass stars; Supergiants; heavy elements in the onion-structured core

6.     Supernova explosions; iron core collapse; supernova remnants;

7.     -----

8.     -----

9.     Type I and Type II supernovae

10.  ----

 

       Chap. 23 --- Neutron Stars

1.     -----

2.     Pulsars; period of pulsars

3.     Neutron stars; rapidly rotation; strong magnetic field

4.     Slow-down of isolated pulsars

5.     -------

6.     -------

7.     -------

8.     -------

 

       Chap. 24 --- Black Holes

1.     Special theory of relativity

       Two principles

a.      Same physics laws in different constant-speed frames

b.     Constant speed of light, regardless of the motion

       Two effects in space-time:

a.      Length contraction

b.     ime dilation

2.     General theory of relativity

       Equivalence Principle between gravity and acceleration

       Curvature of space

       Gravitational red shift

3.     Stellar-mass black holes; X-ray binary system

4.     Supermassive black holes; center of galaxies

5.     Structure of black holes

       Singularity

       Event Horizon

       Schwarzschild radius

6.     -----

7.     -----

 

       Chap. 25 --- Our Galaxy

1.     Sunís location in the Galaxy; interstellar extinction; globular cluster

2.     Shape of the Galaxy

       disk

       central bulge

       halo

       population of stars in different structure

3.     Spiral arms

       radio observation at 21 cm from neutron hydrogen or HI

       star forming region

4.     dark matter

       rotation curve

5.     Nature of spiral arms

       density waves

6.     Galaxy Center

 

       Chap. 26 ---Galaxies

1.     -----

2.     Distance to galaxies; Cepheid variables

3.     Galaxy classifications

       spiral

       barred spiral

       elliptical

       irregular galaxies

4.     Distance ladder

       Standard candles

       parallax, spectroscopic parallax, RR Lyrae variable, Cepheid variable, Type 1a supernova

5.     The Hubble Law; distance and receding velocity (from redshift) of galaxies

6.     Galaxy clusters and superclusters

       Distribution of galaxies

       Filaments

       Voids

7.     -----

8.     Dark matter; rotaton curve; gravitational lensing

9.     Galaxy formation

 

       Chap. 27 --- Quasars, Active Galaxies and Gamma-Ray Bursters

1.     Quasars; star-like; distant; luminous

2.     Quasars are centers of active galaxies

3.     -----

4.     AGN (active galactic nuclei)

       super-luminous motion

       AGN variation and size

5.     Super-massive black hole, the engine of AGN

6.     ------

7.     Gamma-ray Bursters

 

       Chap. 28 --- Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

1.     Olbersís paradox

2.     Expanding universe

       Hubble law

       Cosmological redshift

       Lookback time

3.     Big Bang

       Age of the Universe; from Hubble constant

       Cosmic light horizon or observable universe

4.     Cosmic microwave background radition; backboday radiation with a temperature of 2.7 K

5.     Universe in the first 380,000 years

       Mass density of matter;

       Mass density of radiatione

       Era of recombination; opaque and transparent unvierse

       primordial fireball

       Afterglow of Big Bang

6.     Geometry of universe

       depends on critical density

       closed

       flat

       open

       Our universe is flat

       Dark energy

7.     -----

8.     -----

 

       Chap. 29 ---- Exploring the Early Universe

1.     Inflation theory

       Isotropy problem

       flatness problem

       Inflation epoch

2.     ------

3.     Creation of matter and energy during the inflation

       Heisenberg Uncertainty principles

       Matter and anti-matter; virtual pairs

       Annihilation; pair production

4.     Universe is built upon ordinary matter only

       threshold temperature

       asymmetry between matter and anti-matter

5.     Relics of primordial firemass

       hydrogen and helium

6.     galaxy formation

1.     Density fluctuation

2.     Jeanís Length

3.     Bottom-up galaxy formation

7.     -----

 

       Chap. 30 ---- The Search for Extraterrestrial Life

1.     Building block of life; organic molecules

2.     Mars and Europa; existence of liquid water

3.     ------

4.     Drake equation

5.     Radio search for life; water hole

6.     -----