Astronomy 111, Session 003

Review Topics on the final exam

 

The final exam takes place from 7:30 PM to 10:15 PM on Dec. 17, 2007 (Monday).

The exam consists of 100 multiple-choice questions, covering 15 chapters from Chap. 1 to Chap. 15.

 

Note: if you are using 7-edition textbook, the content covers 17 chapters from Chap. 1 to Chap. 17.

 

        Chap. 1 --- Astronomy and the Universe(Eight sections but excluding 1-2, 1-3, 1-4 and 1-8)

o       1-1. Scientific methods, hypothesis, model, theory and laws of physics

o       1-5. Angular measure, angular diameter, angular size, angular distance

o       1-6. Powers-of-ten notation

o       1-7. Units of astronomical distances, AU, light year, parsec

 

        Chap. 2 ---Known the Heavens (Eight sections but excluding 2-1, 2-6 and 2-8; also include box 2-2)

o       2.2. Constellations

o       2.3. Diurnal motion of stars, Earth rotation, Annual motion of stars, Earth orbital motion, Polaris

o       2.4. Celestial sphere, celestial equator, celestial poles, zenith

o       2.5. Seasons, tilt of Earthís axis of rotation, ecliptic plane, two reasons for summer hot (or winter cold), equinoxes (vernal and autumn), solstices (summer and winter), Sunís daily path

o       2.7. Timekeeping, meridian, noon, apparent solar day, mean sun, mean solar day, time zone, universal time

o       Box 2-2. sidereal time, sidereal day

 

        Chap. 3 --- Eclipses and the Motion of the Moon(Six sections but excluding 3-6)

o       3-1. Phases of the Moon; causes of the phases

o       3-2. Synchronous rotation of Moon; synodic month, sidereal month

o       3-3. Solar and lunar eclipses; causes and configurations

o       3-4. Lunar eclipses; umbra, penumbra; totality

o       3-5. Solar eclipses; eclipse path; totality

 

        Chap. 4 --- Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets (Eight sections but excluding 4-3 and 4-5)

o       4-1. Geocentric models; direct motion, retrograde motion of planets; Ptolemaic systems: deferent, epicycle

o       4-2. Heliocentric model; explanation of retrograde motion; planetary configuration; Inferior planets, elongation, evening stars, morning stars; superior planets, conjunction, opposition; synodic period, sidereal period of planets

o       4-4. Keplerís three laws of planetary motion; first law on orbital shape; second law on orbital speed, perihelion, aphelion; third law on orbital period and size

o       4-6. Newtonís three laws of motion; first law on inertial, speed, velocity, acceleration; second law on force (F=ma); third law on action and reaction

o       4-7. Newtonís law on universal gravitation

o       4-8. Tidal force of Moon; high tide, low tide

 

        Chap. 5 --- The Nature of Light (Nine sections; also including Box 5-1)

o       5-1. Speed of light

o       5-2. Electromagnetic waves; different types from radio to gamma ray; wavelength and frequency

o       5-3. Blackbody and blackbody radiation

o       Box 5-1. three temperature scales

o       5-4. Wienís law on radiation; Stefan-Boltzmannís law on radiation

o       5-5. Dual properties of light: particle nature and wave nature

o       5-6. Kirchhoffís laws on spectra: continuous spectrum, emission line spectrum, and absorption line spectrum

o       5-7. Structure of atom

o       5-8. Bohrís model of atom, orbit and energy levels; emission and absorption

o       5-9. Doppler effect; red shift and blue shift

 

        Chap. 6 ---Optics and Telescopes (Six sections)

o       Note: this whole chapter is not covered in the final exam

 

        Chap. 7 --- Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System (Eight sections but excluding 7-2, 7-5 and 7-8)

o       7-1. Terrestrial planet; Jovian planets; differences on size, density, mass

o       7-3. Spectroscope method and chemical composition

o       7-4. Chemical composition of planets; heavy elements versus light elements on temperatures; ices in the solar system

o       7-6. Impact craters; meteoroids; geologic activity

o       7-7. Magnetic field; conducting fluid.

 

        Chap. 8 --- Comparative Planetology II: the Origin of Our Solar System (Seven sections but excluding 8-7)

o       8-1. Constrains on solar system models

o       8-2 Abundance of chemical elements; origins of H and He; origins of heavy elements; interstellar medium

o       8-3. The age of solar system; radioactive age-dating method

o       8-4 Solar nebula hypothesis; gravitational energy; protosun; protoplanetary disk

o       8-5. Formation of terrestrial planets; condensation temperature; planetesimals; protoplanets

o       8-6. Formation of Jovian planets.

 

        Chap. 9 --- The Living Earth (Seven sections but excluding 9-6 and 9-7)

o       9-1. Dynamic Earth; three energy sources: radiation, tidal force, and internal heat; convection; greenhouse effect; greenhouse gas

o       9-2. Earthís interior structure; crust, mantle and core (outer and inner cores); chemical differentiation; seismic waves; melting point.

o       9-3. Plate tectonics; Pangaea; subduction; seafloor spreading

o       9-4. Earthís magnetosphere

o       9-5. Evolution of Earthís atmosphere; outgassing; effects of organism; photosynthesis; respiration; oxygen

 

        Chap. 10 --- Our Barren Moon(Five sections but excluding 10-2 and10-4)

o       10-1: Synchronous rotation; Dark maria; Light-colored highlands

o       10-3: No plate tectonics; Causes of Moonquakes

o       10-5: Formation of the Moon; Collision-ejection theory

 

        Chap. 11 ---Mercury, Venus and Mars (Nine sections but excluding 11-3, 11-4 and 11-9)

o       11-1: Morning star; Evening star; Elongation; Opposition

o       11-2: Rotation of Venus: retrograde rotation

o       11-5: Venus: flake tectonics, young surface; Mars: crustal dichotomy, old surface, ancient geological activity;

o       11-6: Venusís thick atmosphere, high temperature, sulfuric acid clouds; strong green house effect; Marsís thin, cold atmosphere; weak green house effect; seasonal changes of polar ice caps.

o       11-7: Evolution of atmosphere; Outgassing; Runaway greenhouse effect; Runaway icehouse effect; Recycle of greenhouse gases

o       11-8: Water on Mars; Ancient liquid water; frozen water

 

        Chap. 12 --- Jupiter and Saturn (Eleven sections but excluding 12-5 and 12-11)

o       12-1: Opposition. Cloud-top. Dark belts. Light Zones. Great Red Spot

o       12-2: Fast rotation; Differential rotation;Atmosphere composition

o       12-3: Storm systems; Circular winds; Great red spot

o       12-4: Internal energy source; Temperature gradient; Zonal winds; Cloud heights of dark belts and light zones;

o       12-6: Oblateness,rotation,core; Internal structure

o       12-7: Strong magnetic field;Liquid metallic hydrogen

o       12-8: Saturnís system of rings.

o       12-9: Ring particles; Roche limit

o       12-10: Ringís composition. Ringlets.

 

        Chap. 13 --- Jupiter and Saturnís Satellites of Fire and Ice (Ten sections but excluding 13-5, 13-7 and 13-10)

o       13-1: Jupiterís Galilean satellites. Synchronousrotations; Rhythmic relationship

o       13-2: Galilean satellitesí size and density.

o       13-3: Origin of the Galilean satellites; Jovian nebula.

o       13-4: Io:active volcanoes; Internal heat;Tidal heating

o       13-6: Europe: smooth, icy surface; Geological activity; Underground ocean

o       13-8: Titanís thick Atmosphere

o       13-9: Jupiterís small moons; Retrograde orbit; Capture of asteroids

 

        Chap. 14 --- Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Kuiper Belt: Remote Worlds (Ten sections but excluding 14-5 and 14-7)

o       14-1: Chance discovery of Uranus; calculated discovery of Neptune

o       14-2: Uranusís unusual rotation axis; exaggerated seasonal change

o       14-3: Neptuneís atmosphere; great dark spot; Internal heat; Gravitational contracting.

o       14-4: Internal structure of Uranus and Neptune.

o       14-6: Uranus and Neptuneís rings; Occultation measurement

o       14-8: Neptuneís satellite; Triton, tidal heating; capture

o       14-9: Pluto; Charon; Synchronized motions

o       14-10: Trans-Neptunian objects; Kuiper Belt

 

        Chap. 15 --- Vagabonds of the Solar System (Eight sections but excluding 15-6)

o       15-1:Discovery of asteroids; ďmissing planetĒ

o       15-2: Asteroid belt; formation; gravitational effect of Jupiter; Planetesimals failing to form a planet

o       15-3: Asteroidís shape and composition. ďrubble pileĒ

o       15-4: NEO; impact on Earth;dinosaurs extinction

o       15-5: Meteoroid; meteor; Meteorite.

o       15-7: Comets: Nucleus, coma, hydrogen envelope, dust tail. ion tail; radiation pressure; solar wind pressure

o       15-8: Comet origin; Kuiper Belt. Oort cloud;meteoritic swarm; meteor shower