Astronomy 111, Session 003, Fall 2006

Instructor: Dr. Jie Zhang


Final Review


The final exam will take place from 7:30 PM to 10:15 PM on Dec. 18, 2006

The exam consists of 100 multiple-choice questions, covering 17 chapters from Chap. 1 to Chap. 17


Note 1: In each chapter, all sections are covered, except those explicitly excluded

Note 2: In each chapter, all boxes are excluded, ††except those explicitly included



        Chap. 1 --- Astronomy and the Universe(8 sections; excluding 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-8)

o       1-1. Scientific methods, hypothesis, model, theory and laws of physics

o       1-5. Angular measure, angular diameter, angular size, angular distance

o       1-6. Powers-of-ten notation

o       1-7. Units of astronomical distances, AU, light year, parsec



        Chap. 2 ---Known the Heavens (8 sections; excluding 2-6, 2-8; covering box 2-1 and box 2-2)

o       2-1. Ancient civilization, positional astronomy

o       2.2. Constellations

o       2.3. Diurnal motion of stars, Earth rotation, Annual motion of stars, Earth orbital motion, Polaris

o       2.4. Celestial sphere, celestial equator, celestial poles, zenith

o       Box 2-1: celestial coordinates, right ascension, declination,

o       2.5. Seasons, tilt of Earthís axis of rotation, ecliptic plane, two reasons of why summer is hotter (or winter is colder), equinoxes (vernal and autumn), solstices (summer and winter), Sunís daily path

o       2-7. Timekeeping, meridian, noon, apparent solar day, mean sun, mean solar day, time zone, universal time

o       Box 2-2. sidereal time, sidereal day



        Chap. 3 --- Eclipses and the Motion of the Moon(6 sections; excluding 3-6)

o       3-1. Phases of the Moon (new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent, and new); the cause of the phases

o       3-2. Synchronous rotation of Moon; synodic month (29.5 days), sidereal month (27.3 days)

o       3-3. Solar and lunar eclipses; causes and configurations;

o       3-4. Lunar eclipses; umbra, penumbra; totality

o       3-5. Solar eclipses; eclipse path; totality



        Chap. 4 --- Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets (8 sections;excluding 4-3)

o       4-1. Ancient geocentric models; direct motion, retrograde motion of planets; Ptolemaic systems: cycles on cycles; deferent, epicycle

o       4-2. Heliocentric model of Copernicus; explanation of retrograde motion; planetary configuration; Inferior planets, elongation, evening stars, morning stars; superior planets, conjunction, opposition; synodic period, sidereal period of planets

o       4-4. Keplerís three laws of planetary motion; first law of shape of orbit; second law of orbital speed, perihelion, aphelion; third law of orbital period and size (P2=a3)

o       4-5. Galileoís usage of telescope; phases of Venus

o       4-6. Newtonís three laws of motion; first law of inertial; second law of force (F=ma); third law of action and reaction

o       4-7. Newtonís law on universal gravitation; orbital motion caused by gravitational force; conic sections

o       4-8. Tidal force; high tide, low tide; spring tide, neap tide



        Chap. 5 --- The Nature of Light(9 sections, all covered;box 5-1 and box 5-5)

o       5-1. Speed of light

o       5-2. Wave property of light; Electromagnetic radiation; different types of electromagnetic radiation; wavelength; frequency; color

o       5-3. Blackbody; Blackbody radiation

o       Box 5-1. three temperature scales

o       5-4. Wienís law on wavelength of maximum emission ; Stefan-Boltzmannís law on total energy of blackbody radiation

o       5-5. Dual properties of light: particle and wave

o       5-6. Spectral lines; Kirchhoffís laws on spectrum: continuous spectrum, emission line spectrum, and absorption line spectrum

o       5-7. Structure of atom

o       Box 5-5: periodic table

o       5-8. Bohrís model of atom; orbit and energy level; emission; absorption

o       5-9. Doppler effect; red shift and blue shift



        Chap. 6 ---Optics and Telescopes (7 sections; excluding 6-4, 6-6)

o       6-1. Refraction; Refraction telescope; focal point; light-gathering power; magnifying power

o       6-2. Reflection telescope; objective mirror;

o       6-3. Angular resolution; diffraction limit; seeing

o       6-5. Spectrograph; grating

o       6-7. Telescope in orbit;Optical window, radio window; advantages in orbit



        Chap. 7 --- Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System (8 sections, excluding 7-3, 7-8)

o       7-1. Solar system; Terrestrial planets versus Jovian planets in size, mass, density and composition

o       7-2. Seven large satellites

o       7-4. Chemical composition; Light elements, heavy elements; Ices in the solar system

o       7-5. Asteroids; comets

o       7-6. Impact craters; meteoroids; geologic activity; internal heat

o       7-7. Magnetic field of planets; core of conducting fluid; dynamo



        Chap. 8 --- Comparative Planetology II: the Origin of Our Solar System (6 sections, excluding 8-6)

o       8-1. Requirements of solar system model

o       8-2. Abundance of Chemical elements; Origins of H and He, and heavy elements; interstellar medium

o       8-3. Solar system age; radioactive age-dating

o       8-4. Solar nebula hypothesis; protosun

o       8-5. Protoplanetary disk; condensation temperature; ice particles; planetesimals; protoplanets



        Chap. 9 --- The Living Earth (all 7 sections)

o       9-1. Active Earth; Three sources of energy; Greenhouse effect; Greenhouse gas

o       9-2. Earthís interior structure; crust, mantle, and core (outer and inner cores); seismic waves

o       9-3. Plate tectonics; Pangaea; Asthenosphere, lithosphere; Seafloor spreading, subduction; Earthquake

o       9-4. Earthís magnetosphere; solar wind

o       9-5. Earthís atmosphere; Composition (Nitrogen and Oxygen); Effects of living organism; Photosynthesis and oxygen

o       9-6. Temperature profiles; troposphere and convection; stratosphere and ozone

o       9-7. Earthís biosphere; Global warming; Ozone hole



        Chap. 10 --- Our Barren Moon(5 sections, excluding 10-4)

o       10-1: Surface. Craters, Terrae, Maria

o       10-2: Manned exploration

o       10-3: Interior. No plate tectonics

o       10-5: Formation. Collision-ejection theory. Tidal force



        Chap. 11 ---Mercury (4 sections)

o       11-1: Difficulty in observing Mercury

o       11-2: Rotation. 3-2 spin-orbit coupling

o       11-3: Surface. No plate tectonics. No atmosphere

o       11-4: Interior. Large core



        Chap. 12 --- Venus (6 sections)

o       12-1: Morning Star, Evening Star. Elongation.

o       12-2: Retrograde rotation of Venus

o       12-3: Thick atmosphere. High temperature. Sulfuric acid clouds

o       12-4: Hot-spot volcanism. Clouds.

o       12-5: Climate evolution. Venus versus Earth. Recycle of greenhouse gases. Runaway greenhouse effect.

o       12-6: Surface (Volcanism) and Interior (no plate-tectonics)



        Chap. 13 --- Mars (8 sections, excluding 13-6, 13-7 and 13-8)

o       13-1: Best observation of Mars, opposition.

o       13-2: Illusion of seasonal color changes. Canal illusion.

o       13-3: Surface. Craters. Volcanoes, Olympus Mons. Dichotomy (southern highlands versus northern lowlands)

o       13-4: Water on Mars. Polar ice caps. Frozen water

o       13-5: Climate evolution. Atmosphere. Runaway icehouse effect. Frozen water. Locked carbon dioxide



        Chap. 14 --- Jupiter and Saturn (12 sections, excluding 14-5, 14-8, 14-11, 14-12)

o       14-1: Orbital motion, opposition. Cloud-top. Dark belts. Light Zones. Great Red Spot

o       14-2: Differential rotation of Jupiter and Saturn

o       14-3: Atmosphere. Composition (hydrogen and helium). Saturnís helium deficiency. Great Red Spot.

o       14-4: Energy of atmospheric motion; Internal energy source. Temperature gradient.

o       14-6: Oblateness. Core. Internal structure of Jupiter and Saturn

o       14-7: Magnetic field. Liquid metallic hydrogen

o       14-9: Saturnís rings. Rings and gaps.

o       14-10:Ringís composition. Ring particles. Roche Limit.



        Chap. 15 --- Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn (10 sections, excluding 15-5, 15-7, 15-10)

o       15-1:Jupiterís Galilean satellites, Io, Europe, Ganymede, Callisto. Synchronousrotations

o       15-2: Relative density and composition of the four Galilean satellites

o       15-3: Origin of the Galilean satellites. Jovian nebula.

o       15-4: Io. Volcanoes. Tidal heating

o       15-6: Europe. World of water ice. Geological activity. Tidal heating

o       15-8: Titan. Atmosphere and appearance of Titan

o       15-9: Jupiterís small moons; Capture of asteroids



        Chap. 16 --- Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (9 sections, excluding 16-5, 16-6, 16-7, 16-8)

o       16-1: Chance discovery of Uranus; Predicted discovery of Neptune

o       16-2: Uranusís atmosphere. High concentration of Methane, color. Unusual rotation axis. Exaggerated seasonal change

o       16-3: Neptuneís atmosphere. Dynamic atmosphere. Great Dark Spot. Internal heat. Gravitational contracting.

o       16-4: Internal structure of Uranus and Neptune (rocky core, liquid water/ammonia, liquid hydrogen/helium, atmosphere)

o       16-9: Pluto. Charon. Kuiper Belt. (Pluto not a planet any more)



        Chap. 17 --- asteroids and comets (9 sections)

o       17-1:Discovery of asteroids. ďMissing planetĒ

o       17-2: Asteroid belt. Formation. Gravitational effect of Jupiter. Planetesimals failing to form a planet

o       17-3: Asteroidís shape and composition. ďrubble pileĒ

o       17-4: Trojan asteroids. Lagrange points. NEO. Iridium layer. Dinosaurs extinction

o       17-5: Meteoroid, Meteor. Meteorite.

o       17-6: Meteoriteís trace on solar system formation

o       17-7: Comet. Nucleus. Coma. Hydrogen envelope. Dust tail. Ion tail. Radiation pressure. Solar wind

o       17-8: Comet origin. Kuiper Belt. Oort cloud

o       17-9: Meteoritic swarm. Meteor shower