Astronomy 111, Session 003

Review Topics on Exam 1, which takes place on Oct. 2, 2006


Note 1: In each chapter, all sections are covered, unless explicitly excluded

Note 2: In each chapter, all boxes are excluded, unless explicitly listed


        Chap. 1 --- Astronomy and the Universe (8 sections, covered all except section 1-8)

o       Scientific methods, hypothesis, model, theory and laws of physics

o       Learn the formation of solar system

o       Learn the evolution of stars

o       Learn the origin and fate of universe

o       Angular measure, angular diameter, angular size, angular distance

o       Powers-of-ten notation

o       Units of astronomical distances, AU, light year, parsec


        Chap. 2 ---Known the Heavens (8 sections, covered all except section 2-6; covered box 2-1 and box 2-2)

o       Ancient civilization, positional astronomy

o       88 constellations

o       Diurnal motion of stars, Earth rotation, Annual motion of stars, Earth orbital motion, Polaris

o       Celestial sphere, celestial equator, celestial poles, celestial coordinates, right ascension, declination, zenith

o       Seasons, tilt of Earthís axis of rotation, ecliptic plane, two reasons of why summer is hotter (or winter is colder), equinoxes (vernal and autumn), solstices (summer and winter), Sunís daily path

o       Timekeeping, meridian, noon, apparent solar day, mean sun, mean solar day, time zone, universal time, sidereal time, sidereal day

o       Calendar and Leap year, Caesarís calendar, Gregory calendar


        Chap. 3 --- Eclipses and the Motion of the Moon (6 sections, covered all except section 3-6)

o       Phases of the Moon, new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent, and new; causes of the phases

o       Synchronous rotation of Moon; synodic month, sidereal month

o       Solar and lunar eclipses; causes and configurations; the tilt of the plane of the Moonís orbit, line of nodes

o       Lunar eclipses; umbra, penumbra; total lunar eclipse, partial lunar eclipse; totality

o       Solar eclipses; total, partial and annular solar eclipses; eclipse path; totality


        Chap. 4 --- Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets (8 sections, all covered)

o       Ancient geocentric models; direct motion, retrograde motion of planets; Ptolemaic systems: cycles on cycles; deferent, epicycle

o       Heliocentric model of Copernicus; explanation of retrograde motion; planetary configuration; Inferior planets, elongation, evening stars, morning stars; superior planets, conjunction, opposition; synodic period, sidereal period of planets

o       Tycho Braheís observations

o       Keplerís three laws of planetary motion; first law of shape of orbit; second law of orbital speed, perihelion, aphelion; third law of orbital period and size

o       Galileoís usage of telescope; phases of Venus; why support heliocentric model; Galileoís discoveries

o       Newtonís three laws of motion; first law of inertial, speed, velocity, acceleration; second law of force (F=ma); third law of action and reaction

o       Newtonís law on universal gravitation, universal constant of gravitation; orbital motion caused by gravitational force; why not planets falling into the Sun; conic sections

o       Tidal force; high tide, low tide; spring tide, neap tide